Skip to main content

Colophon Colophon

This work is dual licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License and the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of these licenses, visit or or send a letter to Creative Commons PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.

Version 5.6 (volume I) and 2.6 (volume II)

You can use, print, duplicate, share this book as much as you want. You can base your own notes on it and reuse parts if you keep the license the same. You can assume the license is either the CC-BY-NC-SA or CC-BY-SA, whichever is compatible with what you wish to do, your derivative works must use at least one of the licenses. Derivative works must be prominently marked as such.

During the writing of this book, the author was in part supported by NSF grant DMS-0900885 and DMS-1362337.

The date is the main identifier of version. The major version / edition number is raised only if there have been substantial changes. Each volume has its own version number. Edition number started at 4, that is, version 4.0, as it was not kept track of before.

See for more information (including contact information). The LaTeX source for the book is available for possible modification and customization at github:

For a higher quality printout use the PDF versions: or